This method is derived from Kepner-Tregoe problem analysis, it can be used when the definition of the problem is known, but it is not certain what to do next, how to get from the description of the problem to the understanding of the cause.
- It objectively defines and documents the problem, the deviation
- Records known facts and figures
- Identifies and summarizes information about observed symptoms before analyzing causes
- Comparative analysis is based on paired questions e.g.
- Who is experiencing the problem?
- Who could have experienced the problem?
- Helps the team build focus
- It helps the team avoid false causes
- A living document that is updated when additional information becomes available (eg receipt of samples, test results, etc.)
- The last update is usually performed when the cause is known
The process breaks down the problem into 6 logical components:
- What is the problem,
- Where does the problem occur,
- When to apply
- Who detects the problem
- Why is it a problem,
- To what extent.
Through teams working together, the process allows the problem to be clarified, giving everyone a better understanding of the limitations and scope of the issue.
You will notice that the analysis often requires a specialist or subject matter expert with experience in the problem area.
The problem-solving method is not a substitute for experience, but often the more experienced a professional is, the more likely they may be to make assumptions or draw conclusions. Such a method allows the practitioner to focus on the problem and work with facts that lead to a much faster solution.
Just like the Five W, the YES and NO methods are a very effective tool in defining the problem, there is nothing to prevent the two methods from being combined.
Finally, let's look at an example of how to ask questions to upload a YES - NO matrix:
1. What is the problem
What is the problem / non-compliance? What is not causing a problem? (Similar products)
What happened? What could have happened? (other noticeable discrepancy)
In which part of the product is the problem? What could not be the problem?
2. Where the problem occurs
Where was the problem found? Where could the problem have been found?
Where does the problem occur? Where else could the problem be found?
Where else could the problem be discovered? Where else could you find a product problem?
Where did the problem arise in the process? Where could the problem have arisen in the process?
3. When the problem apply
When was the problem first detected? When could the problem have been detected?
Can an intermittent pattern be observed? When could the problem be detected during the life of the product?
When was the defect detected during the product life cycle?
4. Who detects the problem
Who is affected by the problem? Who is not affected by the problem?
Who first noticed the problem? Who didn't notice the problem?
5. Why this is a problem
Why is this a problem? Why is this not a problem?
6. To what extent
How big is the problem? (quantity, frequency) How many times could this be a problem?
What is the trend? What could be the trend?
How often does the problem occur?
Next time I will deal with another analysis method, with Fishbone / Ishikawa diagram.
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